Research Papers for PANDA DCP

The research papers for PANDA Instrumented Variable Energy Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) cover:

  • Understanding the PANDA DCP and its Results
  • Mine Tailings Applications
  • Pavement, Backfill and Working Platform Applications
  • Rail Applications
  • Slope Stability
  • Archeology Applications
  • Comparative Studies with other Compaction Assessment Methods
  • Other PANDA Studies

Understanding the PANDA Instrumented DCP and its Results

PANDA DCP Technical Description, Understanding Results & Correlations – D.D.Langton 1999
The PANDA lightwieght penetrometer for soil investigation and monitoring material – Ground Engineering Article September 1999 D.D.Langton (90MB download)
The PANDA lightwieght penetrometer for soil investigation and monitoring material – Ground Engineering Article September 1999 D.D.Langton (90MB download)
PANDA 2 Graphs
PANDA 2 Strike Table
“The Panda ultralight dynamic penetrometer.” Proc 11th Euro. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 28th May – 1st June 1995 Copenhagen Gourves. R & Barjot. R. (1995) French
“Dynamic Probing and Its Uses In Clay Soils”, Proc Int Conf on Advances in Site Investigation Practice. ICE London, March 1995. Thomas Telford. pp 383-395 Butcher, A.P. McElmeel, K. & Powell, J.J.M. (1995)
“Compaction Control with a dynamic cone penetrometer.” Laboratoire de Genie Civil, CUST, Universite Blaise-Pascal de Clermont-Ferrand, France, BP 206 63174 Aubiere – Chaigneau L, Gourves R & Boissier D (2000)
PANDA Research – Roland GOURVES, Laboratoire Génie Civil –Université Blaise Pascal de Clermont-Ferrand, France – 2006 (44MB download)
Mesures dynamiques lors du battage du penetrometre PANDA 2 – Miguel-Angel Benz-Navarrete – Chemical and Process Engineering. Universite Blaise Pascal – Clermont-Ferrand (2009) French (28MB download)

Mine Tailings Applications

Risk Minimisation in Construction of Upstream Tailings Storage Facilities based on in-situ testing – Fourie, Palma, Villavicencio, Espinace – Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
The Panda Technology Applied to Design and Operation of Tailing Dams – Espinace, Villavicencio & Lemus – Tailings 2013
Stability of Chilean’s tailings dams with the Panda penetrometer (10 Years Experience) – Espinace, Villavicencio Palma, Breul, Bacconnet, Benz & Gourvès – Paris 2013
Methodology for the Spatial Representation of the State of Compaction in Tailings Dams – Ojeda, Zamora, Villavicencio, Espinace and Lemus – Tailings 2015
Effect of Pressure, Density and Tailings Water Content on PANDA DCP Cone Resistance – Gabriel VILLAVICENCIO – Tailings 2018 Chile

 Pavement, Backfill, Trenches and Working Platform Applications

Transport Research Laboratory Assesment Summary of the PANDA CONE PENETROMETER for Compaction Testing (UK)
“Compaction Control with a dynamic cone penetrometer.” Laboratoire de Genie Civil, CUST, Universite Blaise-Pascal de Clermont-Ferrand, France, BP 206 63174 Aubiere – Chaigneau L, Gourves R & Boissier D (2000)
Validation & Refinement of Chemical Stabilization Procededures for Pavement Subgrade comparing Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP), the PANDA penetrometer, and the Portable Falling Weight Deflectometer (PFWD) – Miller, Cerato, Snethen, Holderby & Boodagh – Oklahoma Department of Transport (Oct 2011)
Use Of Variable Energy Penetrometer And Geo-Endoscopic Imaging In Performance Assessment Of Working Platforms Constructed With Large Size Unconventional Aggregates – Hasan Kazmee, Erol Tutumluer, Younes Haddani, Miguel A. Benz Navarrete & Roland Gourves (June 2016)
Adequacy Of In-Place QC/QA Techniques For Evaluating Constructed Aggregate Layers Of Working Platforms And Flexible Pavements – Hasan Kazmee – Applied Research Associates, Inc., Erol Tutumluer – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign & Sheila Beshears – Illinois Department of Transportation (January 2017)

Railway / Railroad Applications

On Site Mechanical Characterization of the Ballast State – Pierre Breul & Gilles Saussine (2010)
Railway Ballast Settlement – A New Predictive Model – Saussine, Quezada, Breul and Radjai – Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Railway Technology (2014)
Geotechnical investigation of a French conventional railway track-bed for maintenance purposes – Lamas-Lopez, Cui, Costa D’Aguiar, Calon – SNCF – Soils and Foundations – Japanese Geotechnical Society Dec 2015

A comparison of two methods of determining the stiffness of track-bed materials (dynamic penetration and dynamic plate load) comparing the PANDA / PANDOSCOPE and the Light Weight Deflectometer.

Slope Stability

On site characterization and air content evaluation of coastal soils by image analysis to estimate liquefaction risk P. Breul, Y. Haddani, R. Gourvès 2008
Assessment of natural slopes susceptible to failure in heavy rainfall based on in-situ cone resistance data – Athapaththui (University of Sri Jayewardenepura) & Tsuchida (Hiroshima University) – Japan 2016

Archeology Applications

Using a penetrometer for prehistoric site formation study: the case of Diepkloof rockshelter, The Cape Region, South Africa – Arnaud Lenoble, Michel Martinaud (2003)

Apports du pénétrométre à la connaissance d’un site préhistorique. Le cas de l’abri de Diepkloof, province du Cap, Afrique du Sud – Arnaud Lenoble, Michel Martinaud (2003) French

Evaluating the Archaeological Potential of Urban Soil – Amélie Laurent – Proceedings of the 36th CAA Conference, Budapest, 2–6 April 2008

Comparative Studies with PANDA and other Compaction Assessment Methods

Comparative Method Report inc PANDA 2 (USA) Prof. Ilan Juran Polytechnic University (2000)
Innovative Technologies for the Control of Soil Compaction – Review of the State of the Art & Experiences in Chile – Herrera, Espinace et Palma – 15th Pan American Conference on Soil Mechanics 2015
Correlation between Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and PANDA DCP in Compacted Dam with Tropical Soils – Brazil 2016 Spanish

Best practice in compaction quality assurance for pavement and subgrade materials – National Asset Centre of Excellence (NACOE) – Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads and the Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) – P60

The research included the Zorn Light Weight Deflectometer, the Anix Instrumented Plate Load Test and PANDA Instrumented DCP.

NACOE Advanced methods for compaction quality control 2018 June Webinar – Part 1Advanced methods for compaction quality control – Webinar 26 June 2018 – Part 1

Best Practice in Compaction QA for Pavement and Subgrade Materials Year 1 Report Jeffrey Lee, David Lacey & Burk Look NACOE P60 QLD DTMR, Australia Aug 2017
NACOE Advanced Methods for Compaction Quality Control – June 2018 Webinar – Part 1 (Webinar Slides)

Other PANDA Instrumented DCP Studies

Using an artificial neural network (ANN) for the identification of soil from penetrometer data – Nicolas ROMANOWSKI Polytech Clermont Ferrand (CUST) Thesis June 2016 French (11MB)
Predicting grain size class from dynamic penetration test using Artificial Neural Networks – Sastre, Benz, Gourves, Breul & Bacconnet – Sol Solution & Universite Blaise Pascal France ISC5 Australia 2016
Automatic methodology to predict grain size class from dynamic penetration test using Artificial Neural Networks Sastre, Benz, Gourves, Breul & Bacconnet Sol Solution & Universite Blaise Pascal – France

Part of Application of Statistical Techniques – Prof Mark Jaksa – University of Adelaide – 5th International Conference of Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation ISC5 Australia 2016

 Physical modelling of vibrocompaction in silica sand mixed with shells – Mollaert, Tavallali & De Schoesitter (International Marine and Dredging Consultants) & Maertens (BVBA) – Belgium – 19th ICSMGE Seoul 2017